Makes: 16 biscuits

  • 100g (4 oz) margarine
  • 50g (2 oz) caster sugar
  • 2 drops vanilla extract
  • 100g (4 oz) plain flour
  • 8 glace cherries, halved


Cream the margarine and sugar until light and fluffy. Stir in the flour and vanilla.Roll mixture into approximately 16 little balls and flatten slightly.Press half a cherry into the centre of each biscuit, and place on a greased baking tray.Bake for 10 to 15 minutes at 190 C / Gas 5.Cool on a wire cooling rack.




Serves: 12 

  • 160g (6 oz) plain flour
  • 115g (4 oz) polenta (cornmeal)
  • 100g (4 oz) caster sugar
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 1 dessertspoon baking powder
  • 1 teaspoon bicarbonate of soda
  • 4 tablespoons vegetable oil
  • 2 1/2 teaspoons vanilla extract
  • 1 egg
  • 225ml (8 fl oz) buttermilk
  • 225g (8 oz) fresh blueberries


  1. Preheat oven to 200 C / Gas mark 6. Grease muffin tin or line with paper muffin cups.
  2. In a large bowl, combine flour, polenta, sugar, salt, baking powder and bicarbonate of soda. In a separate bowl, beat together oil, vanilla and egg. Stir egg mixture into dry ingredients alternating with the buttermilk just until moistened. Gently fold in the blueberries. Spoon batter into prepared muffin tins.
  3. Bake in preheated oven for 20 to 25 minutes, until golden. Serve warm.

longest and biggest rivers

The River Nile is the longest river in the world. It measures 6,695 kilometres from its source in Burundi, along the White Nile, to its delta on the Mediterranean Sea. Officially, the shortest river is the D River, Oregon, USA, which is just 37 metres long.

The biggest river in the world, measured by the amount of water that flows down it, is the Amazon. On average 120,000 cubic metres (about 20 swimming pools’ worth) of water flows out of its mouth every second.

The longest river of Europe is the River Volga. It flows primarily in a southerly direction through Russia into the Caspian Sea. The second longest is the Danube, flows west to east before entering the Black Sea.

The longest Rivers of the World
River Name Location Length (miles approx) Length (km approx) Drainage Area
(sq miles)
Flow at mouth
(cubic m per second)
Nile Africa 4,160 6,695 1,170,000 1,584
Amazon South America 4,000 6,400 2,270,000 180,000
Yangtze Asia (China) 3,900 6,240 698,000 35,000
Mississippi USA 3,870 6,192 1,247,000 17,545
Ob Asia (Russia) 3,459 5,534 1,154,000 12,600
Asia (Russia) 3,440 5,504 996,000 19,600
Yellow River Asia (China) 3,440 5,504 290,000 1,365
Congo Africa (Zaire) 2,900 4,640 1,440,000 42,000
Amur Asia 2,800 4,480 730,000 12,500
Parana Uruguay 2,795 4,472 1,197,000 19,500
Lena Asia (Russia) 2,700 4,320 961,000 16,400
Mackenzie North America 2,640 4,224 697,000 7,500
Niger Africa 2,600 4,160 850,000 5,700
Mekong Asia 2,500 4,000 750,000 15,900
Volga Europe 2,300 3,680 533,000 8,000
Murray-Darling Australia 2,300 3,680 410,000 391
Rio-Grande USA 1,885 3,016 310,000 82





The Mekong is a major river in southeast Asia. It is the twelfth longest river in the world. It begins in the high plateau of Eastern Tibet and flows through China, Burma, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam.

Countries it flows through

China, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam

4000 kilometres (2,500 miles)
Number of tributaries
Tibetan Plateau
Vietnam into the South China Sea


Irrigation, fisheries, power generation, transportation, industrial and domestic supply


Mekong rivers basic overveiw



The Mekong River (known in Tibet as Dza-chu, China as Lancang Jiang and Thailand as Mae Nam Khong), is a major river in southeastern Asia. It is the longest river in the region. From its source in China’s Qinghai Province near the border with Tibet, the Mekong flows generally southeast to the South China Sea, a distance of 4,200 km (2,610 mi). The Mekong crosses Yunnan Province, China, and forms the border between Myanmar (Burma) and Laos and most of the border between Laos and Thailand. It then flows across Cambodia and southern Vietnam into a rich delta before emptying into the South China Sea. In the upper course are steep descents and swift rapids, but the river is navigable south of Louangphrabang in Laos.

The natural resource management issues and priorities differ in each of the countries and the level of development and populations vary significantly. In north-east Thailand, with over 20 million people, the water resources are virtually fully developed and problems are emerging associated with salinisation of arable lands as result of over-clearing of native vegetation and poor irrigation, soil erosion, and declining water quality in the rivers and streams. In Laos, with 5 million people and a much poorer country from a GDP perspective, the water resources are largely undeveloped. Cambodia, with 10 million people, is recovering from decades of war, and in the Mekong delta some 20 million Vietnamese live on some of the most highly productive agricultural land in the world.

In short, the Thai want more water; the Laotions want capital and expertise to develop hydropower for export to Thailand and Vietnam; the Khmers need capital and infrastructure and to secure sustainable fishery resources in the Tonle Sap (Great Lake); and the Vietnamese, while in need of capital for the management of resources, do not want any upstream development to exacerbate salt water intrusion in the Mekong delta during the dry season.

Obviously the water is very important to both countries. To use a metaphor a refrigerator cannot run without the correct refrigerator parts. If you use Jenn-Air parts incorrectly the refrigerator will not work. If you use the correct Jenn-Air parts the refrigerator will be happy. Finding a way to place the right parts at certain points of the river will make the citizens of both countries happy.

Special feature – The Tônlé Sap

The Tônlé Sap is a shallow lake in western Cambodia which is part of the Mekong River system. It is the largest lake of Southeast Asia and is fed by numerous streams. During the dry season it drains by the Tônlé Sap River southeast to the Mekong River. During the wet monsoon season of June to November, the high waters of the Mekong River reverse the flow of the Tônlé Sab River and increase the size of the lake from 2,600 to 10,400 sq km (about 1,000 to 4,020 sq mi). When the high waters of the Mekong River recede, the flow reverses. This natural mechanism provides a unique and important balance to the Mekong River down stream of the lake and ensures a flow of fresh water during the dry season into the Mekong delta in Vietnam which buffers the intrusion of salt water from the South China Sea into the rich agricultural lands of the delta.

Normal Flow Wet Season (Reverse flow into the Tônlé Sap) Receding Flow During Dry Season

Fact Sheet


4,200 km (2,610 mi)


China, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam

Basin population

60 Million

Country population total

242 Million

Per Capita GDP

Varies from US$ 2,565 (Thailand) to US$ 265 (Cambodia)


Irrigation, fisheries, power generation, transportation, industrial and domestic supply

Primary Legal Agreement

Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin, Chiang Rai, Thailand, 5 April 1995 – (Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam)

Institutional arrangements

Mekong River Commission (Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam)

Primary Legal Agreement

The primary international legal agreement on the Mekong River is entitled “Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin”, which was signed in Chiang Rai, Thailand on 5 April 1995 between Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam.

Institutional Arrangements

The primary Institution which has been established by the countries which are signatories to the Mekong Agreement is the Mekong River Commission (MRC). For notes on the MRC and how it functions, follow this link. Also see the Mekong Links Pagefor further information and a link to the MRC.


The Mekong system is extremely complex and effects the lives of some 60 million people, many of whom are amongst the poorest in the world. There are many demands made on the river – to provide water for industrial and agricultural development, to sustain subsistence fishing, for transport, to maintain delicate ecological and hydrological balances… Inevitably there are conflicting demands made on the resource and very different views as to how the water should (or should not) be used. The riparian governments, working independently and together through such structures as the Mekong River Commission have a variety of plans for the development of the region, as do community groups, different stakeholders, local and international NGOs, private investment and construction interests etc. For greater detail of the various plans, views and perspectives, see the Mekong Links Page.

Country Information

Qinghai & Yunnan provinces, China Myanmar Thailand Laos Cambodia Vietnam
Area 1,115,000 sq km (about 430,400 sq mi); 676,552 sq km (261,218 sq mi). 513,115 sq km
(198,115 sq mi)
236,800 sq km
(91,400 sq mi)
181,035 sq km
(69,898 sq mi)
331,690 sq km
(128,066 sq mi)
Average Annual Precipitation Tenasserim Coast 5,000 mm (200 in)

Mandalay 760 mm (about 30 in)

Bangkok 1,400 mm (56 in)

Songkhla 2,540 mm (100 in)

1,780 mm (about 70 in) 1,400 mm (about 55 in) central plain

3,800 mm (150 in) in the mountains

Hanoi 1,680 mm (66 in)

Ho Chi Minh City 1,980 mm (78 in)

Population 42,276,946

(1990 estimate)


(1998 estimate)


(1998 estimate)


(1998 estimate)


(1998 estimate)


(1998 estimate)

Population Density 70 persons per sq km (181 per sq mi) 117 persons per sq km (303 per sq mi)

(1998 estimate)

22 persons per sq km (58 per sq mi) 63 persons per sq km (162 per sq mi) 230 persons per sq km (595 per sq mi)

(1998 estimate)

Urban/Rural Breakdown 27% Urban

73% Rural

(1997 estimate)

21% Urban

79% Rural

(1997 estimate)

24% Urban

76% Rural

(1997 estimate)

20% Urban

80% Rural


20% Urban

80% Rural

(1997 estimate)

Gross Domestic Product US$41.4 billion


US$153.9 billion


US$1.8 billion


US$3 billion


US$24.8 billion

(1997 estimate)

Per capita GDP
(per year)
US$ 875 US$ 2,565 US$ 342 US$ 265 US$ 326



The River Nile is about 6,670 km (4,160 miles) in length and is the longest river in Africa and in the world. Although it is generally associated with Egypt, only 22% of the Nile’s course runs through Egypt.

In Egypt, the River Nile creates a fertile green valley across the desert. It was by the banks of the river that one of the oldest civilizations in the world began. The ancient Egyptians lived and farmed along the Nile, using the soil to produce food for themselves and their animals.

Quick facts about the River Nile

Countries it flows through
Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan, Burundi, Egypt
Approx 6,695 kilometers
(4,160 miles)
Number of tributaries
Burundi, central Africa
Egypt into the Mediterranean Sea
  1. Where is the River Nile? Location of the
  2. Where is the source of the River Nile? Source
  3. Which two main rivers flow into the River Nile? Map of the Nile river
  4. Why did the Ancient Egyptians live near the River Nile?
    Why live near Nile?
  5. Why was the Nile River so important to the Ancient Egyptians? Why important?
  6. What else did the Nile provide for the Ancient Egyptians?
  7. What was the area next to the River Nile Called?
    Black land and Red land
  8. When did the Nile flood? Flooding
  9. Why did the Nile Flood?
  10. Why does the Nile not flood now ?
  11. Who was the Nile God? God
  12. Interesting facts about the River Nile 
    Facts about the Nile

Where is the River Nile?

The River Nile is in Africa. It originates in Burundi, south of the equator, and flows northward through northeastern Africa, eventually flowing through Egypt and finally draining into the Mediterranean Sea.

Map of the River Nile from space
Notice that the land is green on either side of the Nile.

Where is the source of the River Nile?

Lake Victoria, Africa’s biggest lake, is generally thought of as the source of the River Nile. On the northern edge of the lake, water pours over a waterfall, known as Ripon Falls, into a narrow opening which some people believe is the beginning of the River Nile.

The true source of the River Nile

Ripon Falls may be the starting-point of the river, but the many streams that flow into Lake Victoria could claim to be the true source.

Much of Lake Victoria is surrounded by mountains with streams tumbling down into the lake. The largest tributary of Lake Victoria is the Kagera river. The Kagera and its tributary the Ruvubu, with its headwaters in Burundi, is now considered to be the true source of the Nile. It is from here that the Nile is measured as the world’s longest river.

What are the two main rivers that flow into the River Nile?

Map of tghe River NileThe River Nile is formed from the White Nile, which originates at Lake Victoria and the Blue Nile, which originates at Lake Tana in Ethiopia. These rivers meet in Sudan and then go on their long journey northwards towards the sea.

The White Nile is a lot bigger than the Blue Nile, but because of losses along the way the it only contributes about 15% to the flow of the combined Nile. The Blue Nile, rising in Ethiopia, contributes about 85% to the flow of the Nile that passes through Egypt to the Mediterranean.

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Why did the Ancient Egyptians live near the River Nile?

Most Egyptians lived near the Nile as it provided water, food, transportation and excellent soil for growing food.

Why was the Nile River so important to the Ancient Egyptians?

Ancient Egypt could not have existed without the river Nile. Since rainfall is almost non-existent in Egypt, the floods provided the only source of moisture to sustain crops.

Every year, heavy summer rain in the Ethiopian highlands, sent a torrent of water that overflowed the banks of the Nile. When the floods went down it left thick rich mud (black silt) which was excellent soil to plant seeds in after it had been ploughed.

The ancient Egyptians could grow crops only in the mud left behind when the Nile flooded. So they all had fields all along the River Nile. 
Find out about Egyptian Farming

What else did the Nile provide for the Ancient Egyptians?

Reeds, called papyrus, grew along side the Nile. The Egyptians made paper and boats from the reeds.
Find out about Egyptian Writing

The Nile also gave the ancient Egyptians food. They used spears and nets to catch fish. They would also use the nets to catch birds that flew close to the surface of the water.

Another way the Nile helped the ancient Egyptians was in trade. The Nile was the quickest and easiest way to travel from place to place.

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What was the area next to the River Nile called?

This area was known as the Black Land. Further away from the river was the Red Land, a region of inhospitable desert.

When did the Nile flood?

The River Nile flooded every year between June and September, in a season the Egyptians called akhet – the inundation.

Why did the Nile Flood?

Melting snow and heavy summer rain in the Ethiopian Mountains sent a torrent of water causing the banks of the River Nile in Egypt to overflow on the flat desert land.

Click here to see a larger pictureWhy does the Nile not flood now ?

The construction of the Aswan Dam in the 1960’s meant that from 1970 the annual flood was controlled.

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Who was the Nile God?

Hapi was the Nile god. Honouring a god was very important, so when a flood came the Egyptians would thank Hapi for bringing fertility to the land.

Interesting Facts about the River Nile:

The Nile River is the longest river in the world.

The Nile flows into the Mediterranean Sea.

The largest source of the Nile is Lake Victoria.

The Nile has a length of about 6,695 kilometers (4,160 miles).

Its average discharge is 3.1 million litres (680,000 gallons) per second.

The Nile basin is huge and includes parts of Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Congo (Kinshasa), Kenya.

The name Nile comes from the Greek “neilos”, which means valley.

The Ancient Egyptians called the river Ar or Aur (black) because of the colour of the sediment left after the river’s annual flood.

Further Infomation

Nile River
A fantastic resource about the Nile.

Fact File of the River Nile



Length: (From White Nile Source to Mouth) 6695km (4184 miles).

Name: The Nile gets its name from the Greek word “Nelios”, meaning River Valley.

SourcesThe White Nile: Lake Victoria, Uganda. The Blue Nile: Lake Tana, Ethiopia.

Countries: The Nile and its tributaries flow though nine countries. The White Nile flows though Uganda, Sudan, and Egypt. The Blue Nile starts in Ethiopia. Zaire, Kenya, Tanzanian, Rwanda, and Burundi all have tributaries, which flow into the Nile or into lake Victoria Nyanes.

Cities: The major cities that are located on the edge of the Nile and White Nile are: Cairo, Gondokoro, Khartoum, Aswan, Thebes/Luxor, Karnak, and the town of Alexandria lies near the Rozeta branch.

Major Dams: The major dams on the Nile are Roseires Dam, Sennar Dam, Aswan High Dam, and Owen Falls Dam.

Flow Rate: The Nile River’s average discharge is about 300 million cubic metres per day. To get a more accurate idea about how much water actually flows in the nile look at this image:
Flowrate Graph for Nile River

simple rock cakes

Makes: 12 rock cakes

  • 200g self raising flour
  • 1/2 teaspoon mixed spice (optional)
  • 100g block margarine
  • 75g caster sugar
  • 100g currants
  • 1 me


Method Prep:10min > Cook:10min  ›  Ready in:20min 
  1. Preheat oven to 200 C / Fan 180 C / Gas 6. Line baking tray with parchment.
  2. Sieve flour (and spice) into mixing bowl. Cut the margarine into smaller pieces. Rub it into the flour using fingertips only until it looks like breadcrumbs. Do not over rub.
  3. Stir in the sugar and currants. Beat the egg in a small bowl and add to the mixture. Press firmly with a fork until a stiff rocky consistency is formed. Place the mixture on the baking tray in 12 rocky heaps.
  4. Bake for 10 to 12 minutes until they are golden brown and firm to touch. Allow rock cakes to cool before eating.



Amazon River

 The Amazon river is located in South America and the length of the river is 6,992 km! The source of the river is at Mantaro river.

My year

As I get ready for year 5 I’m going to revise things I have enjoyed. I enjoyed working with Miss Wendling and I also enjoyed doing maths. I am proud of achieving the blogs because I have knocked off the year 6s off the lead and won title of blogging queen. I’m excited to become blogging queen in year 5!