# mass and weight

September 22nd, 2017

Most of you already use these two words on an almost daily basis but do you really know the difference between weight and mass?

Have you been confusing mass with weight? It’s very easy to do when you’re not entirely sure of how science actually defines them. Even though they’re both linked, I’ve put together a fairly comprehensive description which, more importantly, is written in layman’s terms and not scientific babble! Here goes…

## What is mass?

Mass is a scientific measure of the amount of matter an object is made up of. No matter where you are at given moment in time, mass is constant. So, whether you’re walking to the shop to stock up on groceries or bouncing around on the moon, your mass is the same. Obviously, if you’re on a diet that’s not the answer you want to hear but don’t panic – we’ll get to the all-important definition of weight shortly.

### Some other key points about mass

1. Mass is indestructible. As you’ve seen above, no matter where you are in the universe your mass will never change
2. Mass can never be zero. What we mean by this is that everything in the universe has mass. If it didn’t it simply wouldn’t exist
3. Mass is not related to gravity, centrifugal force, etc and these forces have no effect whatsoever on your mass
4. Mass is commonly measured in kilograms and grams.

Hopefully, the descriptions above have given you a good idea of what mass really is. Don’t fall into the trap of thinking that this unit of measure is not important – it is. After all, without the huge mass that makes up planet Earth we’d have no gravity – a great way to save money on fuel as you can simply float to work, but not so great when you’re trying to drink your morning espresso on your way to the office.

## What is weight?

Weight is a form of measurement that is dependent on gravity and, unlike mass, your weight can vary depending on where you are in the universe.

Weight is a pretty important measure not only to dieters the world over but also to the scientists and egg heads who design things like space shuttles and boats – opposite end of the spectrum, but it’s all about perspective.

But how can weight vary whilst mass has to remain constant? It’s fairly simple: weight is a variable i.e. it can change based on the amount of gravitational pull an object exerts on a body. Scientists have defined weight using this equation:

Unlike mass, weight can be zero. An example of this is an astronaut floating in space – there’s no gravity acting on his body and, therefore, he has no weight.

1. Weight is commonly measured in Newtons.

## Mass and weight example – the moon

In the below example, we’ve featured an astronaut on earth and on the moon. The Moon’s gravity is much less than the Earth’s gravity – approximately one sixth. So, a 100 kg astronaut weighs 980N on Earth. On the Moon, the astronaut would weigh only 162.2N. However, the astronaut’s mass is 100kg where-ever they are.

Weight on Earth: 100kg x 9.8m/s2 = 980N.
Weight on Moon: 100kg x 1.622 m/s2 = 162.2N.

## The difference between mass and weight – clarification

Ok, hopefully we’ve cleared up any lingering doubts you may have about the whole mass vs weight debate – mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object and weight is the amount of force that gravity has on an object. As you can see, it’s not quite a clear cut topic, but do keep these points in mind and prepare to wow your friends and family with your newfound knowledge of the scientific arts.

# A – W FRUIT AND VEG

September 22nd, 2017

# Victorian timeline

September 22nd, 2017
Timeline of main events

## Victorian Britain Timeline

1837
William IV died and his niece Victoria became Queen at the age of 18
1837 Houses of Parliament built
1838
The first photograph taken, by Louis Daguerre in France and William Henry Fox-Talbot in Britain.
1839 – 1842
Britain defeated China in the Opium War and made China sign the Treaty of Nanking. Britain was given Hong Kong.
1840
February 6 – Britain claims New Zealand as a colony to head off proposed French settlements.
1840
The first postage stamps (Penny Post) came into use
1840
married Prince Albert
1841
The Great Western Railway from Bristol to London was completed offering a journey of only four hours.
1842
The Mines Act stopped children under 10 from working in the mines.
1842
Assassination attempt on Queen Victoria by John Francis
1843
Britain claims the former Boer republic of Natal as a British colony.
1843
Charles Dickens published A Christmas Carol. It sold out completely in 6 days.
1844
The Factory Act stops children between 8 and 13 working more than 6.5 hours a day.
1845 – 1849
Ireland  suffered the Great Potato Famine when entire crops of potatoes, the staple Irish food, were ruined. The famine was a consequence of the appearance of blight, the potato fungus. About 800,000 people died as a result of the famine. A large number of people migrated to Britain, the United States, Canada and Australia.
1844-1845
8,000km of railway track built across Britain

1850s

The first post boxes were built
1850 Workhouses opened to try to help the poorest people who had no money. In return for their labour, the workers were given a bed and basic food.
1851 The Great Exhibition opened at Crystal Palace by Prince Albert.
Census showed just over half of Britain’s population (of 20 million) lived in towns
1851 The first free public library opened in Winchester.
1851 London is now Britain’s largest city, with 2.4 million
1851 Ice Cream is invented by Jacob Fussell, in the USA
1852
The first public flushing toilet opens in London
1854 -1856
The Crimean War fought by Britain and France against Russia
1854
A cholera epidemic led to demands for a clean water supply and proper sewage systems in the big cities
1856 Britain defeated Russia in the Crimean War
1856 Police forces now in every town
1858 The British Parliament passed the Government of India Act, ending the rule of the East India company and bringing India under British rule.

November 1 – Queen Victoria is crowned Empress of India.

1861 Death of Prince Albert from Typhoid
1863 The first underground railway is opened in London.
The foundation of the Football Association
1864
A law bans boys under 10 from working as chimney sweeps.

1868

The last public hanging

1869

The first Sainsbury’s shop open in Dury Lane, London
1870
Schools provided for 5 – 10 year olds
1871
Queen Victoria opens the Albert Hall
1871
Bank Holiday Act introduced, allowing banks to close a few days a year
1872
First FA Cup Final
1875
Captain Matthew Webb became the first man to swim the English Channel. It took him 22 hours.
1876
Queen Victoria was crowned the Empress of India
1876 Scotsman Alexander Bell invented the telephone
1877
The world’s first recording of the human voice was heard when the inventor of the phonograph, Thomas Edison, recited ‘Mary Had A Little Lamb’ and played it back
1878
The first public electric lighting in London, replacing the old gas lamps, which had to be lit by hand every evening.
1880
The Education Act makes compulsory schooling for all children between 5 and 10.
1881
London’s Natural History Museum opened
1883
January – Britain takes complete control of Egypt.
1883
First electric railway
1887
Britain establishes the colony of Nigeria in Africa.

1887

The invention of the gramophone
1891 Free education for every child aged 5-13
1896 The speed limit for horseless carriages in Britain was raised from 4 m.p.h. to 14 m.p.h.
1901  died. Her son, Edward VII, became King.
Population of Britain 40 million
See our timeline of Kings and Queens of England

# Sir Isaac Newton

September 22nd, 2017

# Sir Isaac Newton

## Why was he famous?

Isaac Newton was born in 1643 and became famous for his work on gravity and his three laws of motion. He was also well known for his work on light and colour, and what is now called calculus (a branch of mathematics).

The famous story of an apple falling to the ground from a tree illustrates how Newton’s work on gravity was inspired by things he observed in the world around him.

## Top 10 facts

1. Isaac Newton is best known for ‘discovering’ gravity, but he worked on so many different topics that our understanding of the world was changed forever by his work..
2. Newton had many roles in his life beyond his scientific research: he was Warden and Master of the Mint, and President of The Royal Society, as well as a member of parliament (MP).
3. Newton was born very early (premature) and his family thought he would die, but he actually went on to live to the age of 85.
4. Newton was a grumpy man and often argued with people.
5. Newton discovered that white light is made up of a range of colours.
6. Newton’s mum wanted him to become a farmer. Newton had other ideas!
7. Newton initially studied for a law degree at Cambridge University. During this time he bought a book on maths but didn’t understand it.
8. Newton owned more books on history than on science.
9. When he was an MP, Newton only ever spoke one sentence – and that was to ask for a window to be closed!
10. Newton was knighted by Queen Anne on April 16, 1705.

## Timeline

• 1643
Isaac Newton is born
• 1661
Newton goes to study at Cambridge University
• 1666
Newton develops his calculus theories
• 1669
Newton is made Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University
• 1687
Newton publishes Principia which outlines his 3 laws of motion and his law of gravitation
• 1689
Newton becomes an MP
• 1696
Newton becomes Warden of the Mint
• 1700
Newton becomes Master of the Mint
• 1703
Newton becomes President of the Royal Society
• 1705
Newton is knighted, becoming Sir Isaac Newton
• 1727
Newton dies and is buried in Westminster Abbey

## Did you know?

• Isaac Newton was not very keen on school work and preferred reading and making things.
• Newton was the first person to build a reflecting telescope, which made the images seen through a telescope much clearer.
• Newton was the first scientist to be buried at Westminster Abbey. Since then other scientists have been buried there, including Charles Darwin, Ernest Rutherford, and Sir JJ Thompson.
• Newton studied maths, physics and astronomy at Cambridge University. He became Professor of Mathematics and worked at the university for over 30 years.
• Newton was also interested in alchemy – he spent a lot of time trying to discover how to change things like lead and mercury into gold.
• Forces are measured in ‘Newtons’ after Newton’s work on motion.
• Sometimes Newton’s year of birth is reported as 1642 and sometimes as 1643. This is because according to the old (Julian) form of calendar he was born on the 25th December 1642, but under the Gregorian calendar that we use today he was born on the 4th January 1643!

## Look through the gallery below and see if you can spot the following

• Newton in 1689

# FAMOUS VICTORIANS : Elizabeth Fry

September 22nd, 2017
• Elizabeth Fry was born on 21st May 1780 in Norwich, England.
• As a child she lived in Earlham Hall
• Her parents were very wealthy. Her father was associated with Gurney’s Bank and her mother was related to the founders of Barclays Bank.
• When she was 18, Elizabeth was inspired by the American Quaker, William Savery. She began to become aware of the plight of prisoners, the poor, and the sick.

• Elizabeth married Joseph Fry in 1800 and they had 11 children.
• She visitied Newgate Prison and decided something must be done to improve the conditions for the women and children prisoners. She helped to set up the ‘Association for the Reformation of the Female Prisoners’ in Newgate, and in 1818 she gave evidence to the House of Commons.
• She set up the Brighton District Visiting Society. The members visited poor families to offer support and charity.
• In 1840 she started a nursing school. Apparently, she inspired Florence Nightingale, and some of the Fry nurses went with Florence Nightingale to help the wounded of the Crimean War.
• Queen Victoria was impressed by Elizabeth Fry. She met with her on several occasions and provided funding for some of her causes.
• Robert Peel was also a supporter of Elizabeth Fry.
• Elizabeth Fry died on 12th October 1845. She suffered a stroke. She is buried in Ramsgate in a private burial ground.
• Elizabeth Fry has appeared on the back of £5 notes.

# Famous Victorians Dr. Barnardo

September 22nd, 2017
• Thomas John Barnardo was born on 4th July 1845 and he died on 19th September 1905.
• He was born in Dublin, Ireland.
• When he was sixteen years old, he decided he wanted to become a Protestant medical missionary in China.
• He moved to London in order to train to be a doctor. He studied at the London Hospital, but never actually completed the course to earn a doctorate. Although he is known as ‘Doctor’ Barnardo, he never actually qualified as a doctor.
• During his time in London, Thomas Barnardo became interested in the lives of the Victorian poor. He was apalled by the number of people living on the streets of London and he witnessed the horrific effects of cholera, unemployment and overcrowding.
• Barnardo decided to put aside his plans to visit China. He opened his first ‘ragged school’ in 1867, in the East End of London, to educate and care for poor orphans.
• One of his pupils, a boy called Jim Jarvis, took Barnardo on a walk of the the East End, showing him the sheer number of poor children sleeping rough. Barnardo was so moved by the sight that he decided to do something about it.
• In 1870, Thomas Barnardo opened a home for boys in Stepney Causeway, providing shelter for orphans and destitute children. A sign hang on the building which said: ‘No Destitute Child Ever Refused Admission’.
• Barnardo founded the Girls’ Village Home. Located in Barkingside, the ‘village’ consisted of a collection of cottages and was home to 1500 poor girls.
• During his life Barnardo continued to open institutions that helped to care for poor children. By his death in 1905 it is estimated that his homes and schools cared for over 8000 children in more than 90 different locations.
• The Barnardo’s is still in existence today. Have a look at their Website.

# Famous Victorians : Charles Dickens

September 21st, 2017

Here are some interesting facts about the Victorian writer, Charles Dickens, the author of many classic novels, including, David CopperfieldOliver Twist and Great Expectations. Often described as the ‘quintessential Victorian author’, Dickens’s stories are enjoyed just as much today as they were by his nineteenth century readership.

• Charles Dickens was born on 7th February 1812 in Portsmouth.
• In 1833 he was employed as the parliamentary reporter for The Morning Chronicle Newspaper Newspaper. He also started to produce a series of sketches. He called himself Boz when he published these.
• In 1836 Charles Dickens married Catherine Hogarth. She was the daughter of one of his editors, George Hogarth.
• Later in 1836, a story by Dickens, The Pickwick Papers was published as a serial. This proved to be very popular and Dickens started to become famous.
• Charles Dickens went on to produce a massive amount of material during his lifetime. He published fifteen novels, wrote hundreds of short stories and non-fiction pieces, lectured and performed both in England and in the United States, wrote plays, wrote thousands of letters and edited two journals.
• After having ten children together, Charles Dickens and Catherine Hogarth separated in 1858. Dickens then had a relationship with Ellen Ternan, an actress.
• Dickens was interested in the paranormal. He was a member of The Ghost Club.
• In 1865 Charles Dickens was involved in the Staplehurst Rail Crash. His was the only first class carriage to avoid running off the tracks. Apparently, Dickens helped many of the wounded passengers before rescuers arrived.
•  Charles Dickens died on 9th June 1870. He suffered a stroke after completing a full day’s work on his novel in progress, Edwin Drood. He was buried in Poet’s Corner of Westminster Abbey.
• Charles Dickens has appeared on the British £10 note.

## The Novels of Charles Dickens

Here is a list of the novels written by Charles Dickens. Many of these were first published as a serial – the stories came out chapter by chapter (just like the episodes of a television series).

• The Pickwick Papers
• The Adventures of Oliver Twist
• The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby
• The Old Curiosity Shop
• Barnaby Rudge: A Tale of the Riots of Eighty
• A Christmas Carol
• The Life and Adventures of Martin Chuzzlewit
• The Chimes
• The Cricket on the Hearth
• The Battle of Life
• Dombey and Son
• The Haunted Man and the Ghost’s Bargain
• David Copperfield
• Bleak House
• Hard Times: For These Times
• Little Dorrit
• A Tale of Two Cities
• Great Expectations
• Our Mutual Friend
• The Mystery of Edwin Drood (never completed by Dickens)

# My club week 3 loo roll flowers

September 21st, 2017

Welcome back on my club this week we will be making loo roll flowers.

You will need:

• A loo roll
• paint of any color of your choice
• glue stick
• sisors

#### HOW TO DO IT

1. Get a loo roll and paint it in a color you want.
2. when it is dry cut squash the roll into a oval then cut it into equal pieces about five.
3. Use the glue and stick the five together.

# Our Charity Vote year 5

September 21st, 2017

Here in year 5 we are having a vote on what charity we will support this year. The head teacher has said we san only support six charities in the school.

The Royal British Legion 0 vote(s)

Godmanchester foodbank 0 vote(s)
British Heart Foundation 20% 3 vote(s)
Children’s cancer and leukaemia group 20% 3 vote(s)
Save the children 40% 6 vote(s)
National Literacy Trust 0 vote(s)
NSPCC 13% 2 vote(s)
Roald Dahl’s marvellous children’s charity 0 vote(s)
Barnardo’s (Giving children back their future) 7% 1 vote(s)
Young Lives VS Cancer (Clic Sargent) 0 vote(s)

#### These are the votes 18th september 2017 to 20 september 2017.

I voted for save the children because they don’t just help people without homes they also do safe places to sleep and offer clean water and many other things.

I have written what other people have thought about it and votes below:

zayn s.
I done British Heart Foundation
Fahima A.
We should have non uniform day and bring 1 pound or a bake sale.
stefan d.

We can have a charity football match to donate money for charity.

Scarlett C.
I voted for the children’s cancer save people.
Callum S.
We should do a carboed little shop and sell stuff we don’t won’t but it works.
This all started in one of our ideas to improve the school it was do more charity 2 classes said that so the head teacher said yes.

# 100 Word Challenge by Ipshita

September 19th, 2017
`Wilbur and Orville were wondering how to make a safe landing spot on soft land. They couldn't find a soft landing so they justfound a rocky landing but the plane had no control. Then they actually crashed! Wilbur had a hip fracture and Orville had to look after Wilbur because then he wouldn't be able to move a lot. So Orville decided to fix the plane for Wilbur. He had finally finished the plane and he had to add a seat by making it. Will Orville fly it successfully or will he crash?`

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